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London nej till eu el


The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district CBD of London.

It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Agesbut the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London ; however, the City of London is not a London borougha status reserved for the other 32 districts including London's only other city, the City of Westminster. It is also a separate county of England, London nej till eu el an enclave surrounded by Greater London.

It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising City and is also colloquially known as the Square Mileas it is 1. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City.

London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself.

This wider usage of London is documented as far back aswhen the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporationis unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as London nej till eu el the police authority.

It is also unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries. The City is a major business and financial centre.

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The insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists outside the City, at Canary Wharf2. The City has a resident population of 9, ONS estimate, mid but overpeople commute to and work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial, professional, and associated business services London nej till eu el. Its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major portserving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century.

Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that "Because no LPRIA settlements or significant domestic refuse have been found in London, despite extensive archaeological excavation, arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now London nej till eu el and uncontroversial. At its height, the Roman city had a population of approximately 45,—60, inhabitants.

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Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europethe Middle Eastand North London nej till eu el. The boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though Londinium did not extend further west than Ludgate or the Fleetand the mid-estuary Thames was undredged and wider than it is today thus, the City's shoreline was north of its present position.

By the time the London Wall "London nej till eu el" constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, and it faced problems of plague and fire. The Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and declineincluding the Carausian Revolt in Britain.

In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from PictsScots, and Saxon raiders. Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, and gradually after the formal withdrawal the city became almost if not, at times, entirely uninhabited.

During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchythe London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of EssexMerciaand later Wessexthough from the mid 8th century it was frequently under the control or threat of the Vikings.

The historian Asser said that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly Alfred's taking of London and the rebuilding of the old Roman city was a turning point in history, London nej till eu el only as the permanent establishment of the City of London, but also as part of a unifying moment in early England, with Wessex becoming the dominant English kingdom and the repelling to some degree of the Viking occupation and raids.

While London, and indeed England, were afterwards subjected to further periods of Viking and Danish raids and occupation, the establishment of the City of London and the Kingdom of England prevailed. In the 10th century, Athelstan permitted eight mints to be established, compared with six in his capital, Winchesterindicating the wealth of the city.

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London Bridgewhich had fallen into ruin following the Roman evacuation and abandonment of Londinium, was rebuilt by the Saxons, but was periodically destroyed by Viking raids and storms. As the focus of London nej till eu el and population was moved back to within the old Roman walls, the older Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was largely abandoned and gained the name of Ealdwic the "old settlement".

The "London nej till eu el" survives today as Aldwych the "old market-place"a name of a street and an area of the City of Westminster between Westminster and the City of London.

Following the Battle of HastingsWilliam the Conqueror marched on London reaching as far as Southwarkbut failed to get across London Bridge or to defeat the Londoners. He eventually crossed the River Thames at Wallingfordpillaging the land as he went. William granted the citizens of London a charter in ; the London nej till eu el was one of a few examples of the English retaining some authority. The City was not covered by the Domesday Book. AboutHenry I granted a sheriff to the people of London, along with control of the county of Middlesex: This 'commune' was the origin of the City of London Corporation and the citizens gained the right to appoint, with the king's consent, a Mayor in —and to directly elect the Mayor from From medieval times, the City has been composed of 25 ancient wardseach headed by an Aldermanwho chairs Wardmoteswhich still take place at least annually.

A Folkmootfor the whole of the City held at the outdoor cross of St Paul's Cathedralwas formerly also held. Many of the medieval offices and traditions continue to the present day, demonstrating the unique nature London nej till eu el the City and its Corporation.

Inthe Peasants' Revolt affected London. The rebels took the City and the Tower of London, but the rebellion ended after its leader, Wat Tyler, was killed during a confrontation that included Lord Mayor William Walworth.

The City was burnt severely on a number of occasions, the worst being in and more famously in the Great Fire of London in Both of these fires were referred to as the Great Fire.

After the fire ofa number of plans were drawn up to remodel the City and its street pattern into a renaissance -style city with planned urban blocks, squares and boulevards. These plans were almost entirely not taken up, and the medieval street pattern re-emerged almost intact. By the late 16th century, London increasingly became a major centre for banking, international trade and commerce.

The Royal Exchange was founded in by Sir Thomas Gresham as a centre of commerce for London's merchants, and gained Royal patronage in Although no longer used for its original purpose, its location at the corner of Cornhill and Threadneedle Street continues to be the geographical centre of the City's core of banking and financial services, with the Bank of England moving to its present site inopposite the Royal Exchange on Threadneedle Street.

Immediately to the south of Cornhill, Lombard Street was the location from of Lloyd's Coffee Housewhich became the world-leading insurance market. London's insurance sector continues to be based in the area, particularly in Lime Street.

The first service had been held on 2 Decembermore than 10 years earlier. It replaced the original St Paul's, which had been completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London, and is considered to be one of the finest cathedrals in Britain and a fine example of Baroque architecture.

The 18th century was a period of rapid "London nej till eu el" for London, reflecting an increasing national population, the early stirrings of the Industrial Revolutionand London's role at the centre of the evolving British Empire.

The urban area expanded beyond the borders of the City of London, most notably during this period towards the West End and Westminster. Expansion continued and became more rapid by the beginning of the 19th century, with London growing in all directions. To the East the Port of London grew rapidly during the century, with the construction of many docks, needed as the Thames at the City could not cope with the volume of trade.

The arrival of the railways and the Tube meant that London could expand over a much greater area. By the midth century, with London still rapidly expanding in population and area, the City had already become only a small part of London nej till eu el wider metropolis. An attempt was made in with the Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London to end the distinction between the City and the surrounding County of London, but a change of government at Westminster meant the option was not taken up.

The City as a distinct polity survived despite its position within the London conurbation and numerous local government reforms. Supporting this status, the City was a special parliamentary borough that elected four members to the unreformed House of Commonswho were retained after the Reform Act ; reduced London nej till eu el two under the Redistribution of Seats Act ; and ceased to be a separate constituency under the Representation of the People Act Since then the City is London nej till eu el minority in terms of population and area of the Cities of London and Westminster.

The City's population fell rapidly in the 19th century and through most of the 20th century, as people moved outwards in all directions to London's vast suburbsand many residential buildings were demolished to make way for office blocks. Like many areas of London London nej till eu el other British cities, the City fell victim to large scale and highly destructive aerial bombing during World War IIespecially in the Blitz.

Whilst St Paul's Cathedral survived the onslaught, large swathes of the area did not and the particularly heavy raids of late December led to a firestorm called the Second Great Fire of London. There was a major rebuilding programme in the decades following the war, in some parts such as at the Barbican dramatically altering the urban landscape.

But the destruction of the older historic fabric allowed the construction of modern and larger-scale developments, whereas in those parts not so badly affected by bomb damage the City retains its older character of smaller buildings. The street pattern, which is still largely medieval, was altered slightly in places, although there is a more recent trend of reversing some of the post-war modernist changes made, such as at Paternoster Square.

In response to the bombing, a system of road barriers, checkpoints and surveillance cameras referred to as the " ring of steel " has been maintained to control entry points to the City. Office space development has intensified especially in the central, northern and eastern parts, with skyscrapers including 30 St. Another skyscraper, 22 Bishopsgateis under construction. The main residential section of the City today is the Barbican Estateconstructed between and The Museum of London is based there, as are a number of other services provided by the Corporation.

For a history of the etymology behind the City's streets see: Street names of the City of London. The City has a unique political status, a legacy of its uninterrupted integrity as a corporate city since the Anglo-Saxon period and its singular relationship with the Crown.

Historically its system of government was not unusual, but it was not reformed by the Municipal Reform Act and little changed by later reforms. It is administered by the City of London Corporationheaded by the Lord Mayor of London not the same as the more recent Mayor of Londonwhich is responsible for a number of functions and has interests in land beyond the City's boundaries.

Unlike other English local authorities, the Corporation has two council bodies: The Court of Aldermen represents the wards, with each ward irrespective of size returning one Alderman. The chief executive of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London.

The City is a ceremonial county which has a Commission of Lieutenancy headed by the Lord Mayor instead of a Lord-Lieutenant and has two Sheriffs instead of a High Sheriff see list of Sheriffs of Londonquasi-judicial offices appointed by the Livery Companiesan ancient political system based on the representation and protection of trades Guilds.

Senior members of the Livery Companies are known as Liverymen and form the Common Hall, which chooses the Lord Mayor, the Sheriffs and certain other officers. The City is made up of 25 wards. They are survivors of the medieval government system that allowed a very local area to exist as a self-governing unit within the wider city. Each ward has an Aldermanwho until the mids [20] held office for life but since put themselves up for re-election at least every 6 years. Wards continue to have a Beadlean ancient position which is now largely ceremonial whose main remaining function is the running of an annual London nej till eu el of electors, representatives and officials.

Each ward also has a Ward Club, which is similar to a residents' association. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since time immemorial. Following boundary changes inand later reform of the business vote in the City, there was a major boundary and electoral representation revision of the wards inand they were reviewed again in for change inthough not to such a dramatic extent.

The review was conducted by senior officers of the Corporation and senior judges of the Old Bailey ; [25] the wards are reviewed by this process to avoid malapportionment. The procedure of review is unique in the United Kingdom as it is not conducted by the Electoral Commission or a local government boundary commission every 8 to 12 years, which is the case for all other wards in Great "London nej till eu el." Particular churches, livery company halls and other historic buildings and structures are associated with a ward, such as St Paul's Cathedral with Castle Baynardand London Bridge with Bridge; boundary changes in removed some of these historic connections.

Only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand. The number of Commoners a ward sends to the Common Council varies from two to ten, depending on the number of electors London nej till eu el each ward.

Since the review it has been agreed that the four more residential wards: City, University of London is a leading global university committed to academic excellence, focused on business and the professions and located in the heart of.

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It was founded in Dirty, making it one of the oldest exchanges in the world. London Appraise Exchange is one of the world's oldest creator exchanges and can find its history back more than years.

It was opened by Elizabeth I of England in During the 17th century, stockbrokers were not allowed in the Royal Rearrangement due to their taboo manners. They had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, strangely Jonathan's Coffee-House.

At that coffee house, a intermediary named John Casting started listing the prices of a few commodities, such as salt, coal, and paper, and exchange relatives in Originally, that was not a common list and was but published a few days of the week. That list and activity was later moved to Garraway's coffee house.

Public auctions during this period were conducted for the duration that a length of tallow candle could burn; these were known as "by inch of candle" auctions. As stocks grew, with new companies joining to raise capital, the royal court also raised some monies. These are the earliest evidence of organised trading in marketable securities in London.

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City of London

Portsoken , Queenhithe , Aldersgate and Cripplegate together elect 20 of the Commoners, whereas the business-dominated remainder elect the remaining 80 Commoners.

Treaty amendments Single European Act , Despite significant division within the ruling Labour Party [56] all major political parties and the mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. Among the twentieth-century listed buildings are Bracken House , the first post World War II buildings in the country to be given statutory protection, and the whole of the Barbican and Golden Lane Estate. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.