Courtesy of the Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam. This book was originally published as Verkenningen van Zuid-Afrika.
Achttiende-eeuwse Trubbel pa hemresan aan de kaap This book is printed on acid-free paper. Europe, Africa, and the Americas, ; v. South Africa Description and travel. South Africa Description and travel Sources. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.
Fees are subject to change. The deep interior of the country was accessible only from the Cape. Except for a few settlements along the coast, the rest of Africa south of the Sahara was a closed territory to Europeans until the nineteenth century. This book analyses how Southern Africa was represented in words and images during the period when the Cape Colony was under the jurisdiction of the voc Dutch East India Company and the Dutch state.
Southern Africa was explored by travellers of various nationalities and with various objectives. These men most of them from other countries than the Netherlands came looking for answers to questions that occupied European scholars.
Everything between heaven and earth attracted their interest. In this book I have generally emphasised the ethnographic representations in travel accounts and in images.
All travel accounts have something to say about the culture and the appearance of the indigenous population. The full manuscript of the original Dutch version of this book, which was published inwas read by Ena Jansen, Jean Kommers and Helize van Vuuren.
Herman Roodenburg made valuable comments on an earlier version of chapter 5 that had appeared as an article in the Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek; Marijke Meijer Drees did likewise with chapter 8, which had been published in a different form in Nederlandse Letterkunde.
Trubbel pa hemresan of these readers were very helpful. Jean Kommers in particular very generously supplied additional information and. Many other people also offered assistance during the research for and preparation of the manuscript. To all of them my sincere thanks.
I also thank Tony Moen for the translation into English and Stellenbosch University for providing funds for making the translation possible. Portrait of Xhosa chief Coba, wearing a Dutch grenadier s cap. The Heerenlogement, west of
Trubbel pa hemresan present Clanwilliam photograph by author Figure 2. Woman with the infamous Hottentot apron, i. In the collection of Vaillant drawings in the Library of Parliament in Cape Town there is a life-size drawing of this phenomenon that has never been published Figure 4.
Camp de la giraffe Camp of the giraffe. Dr Mossop with his car tracing a route followed by the voc travellers. Mossop was an amateur historian and motor-car enthusiast E. Mossop, Old Cape Highways, Figure 7. A child being abandoned by the Khoikhoi was sie Trubbel pa hemresan Zwillingen thun what they do with twins. After one testicle had been surgically removed, Trubbel pa hemresan caponmaker, according to Kolb, urinated on his patient to conclude
Trubbel pa hemresan ritual Peter Kolb, Capvt Bonae Spei Hodiernvm, Figure It shows how a Khoikhoi man who had come to know European civilisation returns his clothes for an indigenous loincloth.
Nicolas Sanson s map Pays et Coste des Caffres: Sanson, L Afriqvue, en plvsieurs cartes novvelles, Figure A recently discovered natural wonder, the giraffe Nieuwste en beknopte beschijving van de Kaap der Goede-Hope, "Trubbel pa hemresan" Fragment of Carel Frederik Brink s Trubbel pa hemresan of of the route followed by the expedition, with a picture of a giraffe.
Most expeditions produced route maps of this type C. Koeman, Tabvlae geographicae, Figure Gordon in hat presents beads? Coba Caffer Captein Coba, chief of the Xhosas. Coba is wearing a Dutch grenadier s cap Gordon had given him.
The drawing of the running Palo Kaffer had to show that the genitals of the Xhosas, according to Hendrik Swellengrebel, were exposed at the slightest movement Swellengrebel Archives, St-Maarten, F1 28 Figure Dode Hottentot Dead Hottentota representation of a Namaqua funeral ceremony. Hottentots Captein s graf Hottentot chief s grave.
Rocks were piled on top of the grave. The bow of the deceased was put on the grave together with broken arrows. The Gordon Atlas contains several drawings made to illustrate the material culture of ethnic groups in situ, in this case Trubbel pa hemresan culture of the Xhosas.
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, Gordon Atlas, G This map presents a summary of Gordon s knowledge of southern Africa Figure Moetoaanaas Huijshouding Moetoana household.
Gordon had never visited the Moetoanas Tswanas. The drawing is an attempt to produce a hypothetical representation of their material culture on the basis of information gathered. Hottentots residing at the mouth of the Orange River.
The engraving from A narrative of four journeys by William Paterson of is based on a drawing from the Gordon Atlas Figure Le Vaillant with giraffe on the frontispiece of his Voyage of Putting a giraffe on the frontispiece was somewhat premature, because the giraffe hunt was described only in Le Vaillant s next book, the Second voyage of Figure Portait of the Gonaqua girl Narina.
She poses in the style of the Venus de Medici from: Petrus Camper s facial angle M. Meijer, Race and aesthetics, Figure Representation of the inhospitable Karoo Trubbel pa hemresan. Border of the Cape Colony on a map by surveyor C. Koeman, Tabulae geographicae, Figure Detail of the map in Barrow s Travels showing the place where he found the rock drawing of the unicorn Drawing on the Rocks of an Unicorn and other Wild beasts.
The oldest inscriptions date back to the start of the eighteenth century. The cave was used as a stopover for travellers who were on their way from Cape Town to the northwestern parts of the present South Africa and to Namibia. It soon received the name Heerenlogement, or Gentlemen s Lodge, a word used in the seventeenth and eighteenth century in the Netherlands for the better class of accommodation. To reach it, you must leave the gravel road that passes it and climb up a winding footpath through low shrubs.
The cave in a rock is actually more an overhanging rock resembling an artillery bunker of Hitler s Atlantic Wall. The walls are indeed covered with travellers names: SlotsbooRheniusF. The tree about which eighteenth-century travellers already wondered how it stayed alive in this arid environment still grows from a crack in the rock. For the list of names Trubbel pa hemresan the walls of the Heerenlogement see Kerby As I was climbing up the bunker-like roof of the cave, a bank of fog was rolling in from the sea.
Within a few minutes the temperature seemed to have dropped several tens of degrees. Suddenly I could see my own breath. From the early days, the Heerenlogement was a landmark on the route from Cape Town to the north. Because of this status, a traveller simply had to drop in there was also a fountain at the foot of the mountain in which the cave is and perhaps carve his name in the rock or make a drawing.
In his Second Voyage Le Vaillant also describes his disillusionment after a visit to the cave. The landscape consisted of bare mountains, the spring was muddied after his arrival by his oxen and by his Hottentots and the trees were limited Trubbel pa hemresan the tree mentioned earlier growing from a crack above the cave.
Moreover, when Le Vaillant wanted to go to sleep in the natural hall of the cave, his peace was disturbed by hundreds of wood pigeons which had Trubbel pa hemresan down in the tree above him. The rich frescos turned out to be nothing more than two caricatures of an elephant and an ostrich and the names of travellers.
His grumpy description of the cave is that of someone who has not closed an eye all night. Vailant to the "Trubbel pa hemresan" of his predecessors. In another sense, however, the name Heerenlogement is quite applicable.
The travellers who set out on journeys of discovery in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and carved their names on the walls of the cave they made their way north were indeed gentlemen. In she accompanied her father on 3 Le Vaillantpp. These travellers mostly from the eighteenth century were a motley crowd.
This distinguished them from the VOC travellers, who had to explore the economic potential of the interior to the exclusion of almost everything else. The accounts produced by the VOC are materially different. However, for a multi-faceted Trubbel pa hemresan of the exploration of South Africa they remain indispensable.
The oldest texts about South Africa are travel accounts produced by world travellers. Seen through European eyes, it was an unattractive region; the landscape was inhospitable and the inhabitants were uncivilised. Unlike Asians, the Khoikhoi did not come up to European standards. Neat clothes or a technologically developed, material culture were nowhere to be seen. Their language sounded like the gobbling of turkeys.
The establishment of a colony partly changed this discourse. Thunberg s text appeared as part 4 of Resan uti kejsardömet Japan, på Java och Ceilon samt hemresan in Uppsala in Daston (), Daston & Park (). Nice read, I just pa(/04/28 ) . o a s??rio, que ataque os problemas com que o Pa??s se debate h??
d??cadas Trubbel pa hemresan que L?￥ter "Trubbel pa hemresan" hemresan g?. En manad och tva dagar sedan jag forst satte foten pa Australiensisk mark av de drygt dagarna innan hemresan ar kvar.