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Basta rantan 2008 01 20

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Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth LEBwhich can be defined in two ways.

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Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort all individuals born a given year and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year.

National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. The combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, Basta rantan 2008 01 20, plagues, wars, and childbirth, particularly before modern medicine was widely available, significantly lowers LEB.

But for those who survive early hazards, a life expectancy of 70 is not uncommon. For example, a society with a LEB of 40 may have few people dying at precisely In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years Basta rantan 2008 01 20 life.

Because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, LEB can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low LEB will necessarily have a small proportion of older people. Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5 e 5can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood; in the hypothetical population above, life expectancy at 5 would be another Aggregate population measures, such as the proportion of the population in various age groups, should also be used along individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics.

Mathematically, life expectancy is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming age-specific mortality rates remain at their most recently measured levels. Longevitymaximum lifespan, and life expectancy are not synonyms.

Life expectancy is defined statistically as the mean number of years remaining for an individual or a group of people at a given age. Longevity refers to the characteristics of the relatively long life span of some members of a population.

Maximum lifespan is the age at death for the longest-lived individual of a species. Moreover, because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may die many years before or many years after the "expected" survival. The term " maximum life span " has a quite different meaning and is more related to longevity. Life expectancy is also used in plant or animal ecology ; [4] life tables also known as actuarial tables.

The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects, [5] but the related term shelf life is used for consumer products, and the terms "mean time to breakdown" MTTB and " mean time between failures " MTBF are used in engineering. Records of human lifespan above age are highly susceptible to errors [6]. For example, the previous world-record holder for human lifespan, Carrie White, was uncovered as a simple typographic error after more than two decades [6].

Therefore, the capacity for equivalent hidden errors make maximum lifespan records highly dubious. The oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is years, reached by Jeanne Calment who lived between and This is referred to as the " maximum life span ", which is the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived. Hughes and Siegfried Hekimi, there is no evidence for limit on human lifespan.

Unless otherwise stated, it represents estimates of the life expectancies of the world population as a whole. In many instances, life expectancy varied considerably according to class and gender. Life expectancy at birth takes account of infant mortality but not prenatal mortality. Life expectancy increases with age as the individual survives the higher mortality rates associated with childhood.

For instance, the table above listed the life expectancy at birth among 13th-century English nobles at Having survived until the age of 21, a male member of the English aristocracy in this period could expect to live: In a similar way, the life expectancy of scholars in the Medieval Islamic world was 59— Life expectancy was under 25 years in the early Colony of Virginia[33] and in seventeenth-century New England, about 40 Basta rantan 2008 01 20 cent died before reaching adulthood.

Public health measures are credited with much of the recent increase in life expectancy. During the 20th century, despite a brief drop due to the flu pandemic [38] starting around that time the average lifespan in the United States increased by more than 30 years, of which 25 years can be attributed to advances in public health. Human beings are expected to live on average 30—40 years in Swaziland [40] and There are great variations in life expectancy between different parts of the world, mostly caused by differences in public healthmedical care, and diet.

Actual life expectancy in Botswana declined from 65 in to 49 in before increasing to 66 in In South Africa, life expectancy was 63 in57 inand 58 in And in Zimbabwe, life expectancy "Basta rantan 2008 01 20" 60 in43 inBasta rantan 2008 01 20 54 in During the last years, African countries have generally not had the same improvements in mortality rates that have been enjoyed by countries in Asia, Latin America, and Europe.

In the United States, African-American people have shorter life expectancies than their European-American counterparts. For example, white Americans born in are expected to live until age The greatest difference was 7. The Centers for Disease Control CDC found nearly 70, more Americans died in thanwith rising rates of death among to year-olds.

Cities also experience a wide range of life expectancy based on neighborhood breakdowns. This is largely due to economic clustering and poverty conditions that tend to associate based on geographic location. Multi-generational poverty found in struggling neighborhoods also contributes. In United States cities such as Cincinnatithe life expectancy gap between low income and high income neighborhoods touches 20 years.

Economic circumstances also affect life expectancy. For example, in the United Kingdom, life expectancy in the wealthiest and richest areas is several years higher than in the poorest areas. This may reflect factors such as diet and lifestyle, as well as access to medical care. It may also reflect a selective effect: A study found a pronounced relationship between economic inequality and life expectancy.

Tapia Granados and Ana Diez Roux at the University of Michigan found that life expectancy actually increased during the Great Depressionand during recessions and depressions in general. Life expectancy is also likely to be affected by exposure to high levels of highway air pollution or industrial air pollution.

This is one way that occupation can have a major effect on life expectancy. Coal miners and in prior generations, asbestos cutters often have lower life expediencies than average life expediencies. Other factors affecting an individual's life expectancy are genetic disorders, drug use, tobacco smokingexcessive alcohol consumption, obesity, access to health care, diet and exercise.

In the uterusmale fetuses have a higher mortality rate babies are conceived in a ratio estimated to be from to males to females, but the ratio at birth in the United States is only males to females.

The difference in life expectancy between men and women in the United States dropped from 7. This may be attributable to the effects of infant mortality and young adult death rates. In the past, mortality rates for females in child-bearing age groups Basta rantan 2008 01 20 higher than for males at the same age. This is no longer the case, and female human life expectancy is considerably higher than that of males.

The reasons for this are not entirely certain. Traditional arguments tend to favor sociology-environmental factors: Some of these in the United States include: Some argue that shorter male life expectancy is merely another manifestation of the general rule, seen in all mammal species, that larger size individuals within a species tend, on average, to have shorter lives.

In her extensive review of the existing literature, Kalben concluded that the fact that women live longer than men was observed at least as far back as and that, with relatively equal treatment, today males in all parts of the world experience greater mortality than females. Kalben's study, however, was restricted to data in Western Europe alone, where demographic transition occurred relatively early.

In countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria, India and China, males continued to outlive females into the twentieth century. With the exception of birds, for almost all of the animal species studied, males have higher mortality than females. There is a recent suggestion that mitochondrial mutations that shorten lifespan continue to be expressed in males but less so in females because mitochondria are inherited only through the mother.

By contrast, natural selection weeds out mitochondria that reduce female survival; therefore such mitochondria are Basta rantan 2008 01 20 likely to be passed on to the next generation.

This thus suggests that females tend to live longer than males. The authors claim that this is a partial explanation.

In developed countries, starting arounddeath rates decreased faster among women, leading to differences in mortality rates between males and females. Before death rates were the same.

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In people born afterthe death rate of to year-old men was double that of women of the same age. Cardiovascular disease was the main cause of the higher death rates among men. Men may be more vulnerable to cardiovascular disease than women, but this susceptibility was evident only after deaths from other causes, such as infections, started to decline. In developed countries, the number of centenarians is increasing at approximately 5.

Shimane prefecture had an estimated centenarians per million inhabitants. In the United States, the number of centenarians grew from 32, in to 71, in November centenarians per million inhabitants. The seriously mentally ill have a to year reduction in life expectancy.

The greater mortality of people with mental disorders may be due to death from injury, Basta rantan 2008 01 20 co-morbid conditions, or from medication side effects. The life expectancy of people with diabetes, which is 9. Various species of plants and animals, including humans, have different lifespans. Evolutionary theory states that organisms that, by virtue of their defenses or lifestyle, live for long periods and avoid accidents, disease, predation, etc.

One theory is that if predation or accidental deaths prevent most individuals from living to an "Basta rantan 2008 01 20" age, there will be less natural selection to increase the intrinsic life span. One prominent and very popular theory states that lifespan can be lengthened by a tight budget for food energy called caloric restriction. Support for the theory has been bolstered by several new studies linking lower basal metabolic rate to increased life expectancy. In a broad survey of zoo animals, no relationship Basta rantan 2008 01 20 found between the fertility of the animal and its life span.

The starting point for calculating life expectancy is the age-specific death rates of the population members. If a large number of data is available, a statistical population can be created that allow the age-specific death rates to be simply taken as the mortality rates actually experienced at each age the number of deaths divided by the number of years "exposed to risk" in each data cell.

However, it is customary to apply smoothing to iron out, as much as possible, the random statistical fluctuations from one year of age to the next. In the past, a very simple model used for this purpose was the Gompertz functionbut more sophisticated methods are now used.

RATAN K. SINGH, D.D.

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